A Linguistic Theory of Translation (Language and Language Learning) [J.C. Catford] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. A Linguistic Theory of Translation: An Essay in Applied Linguistics. Front Cover. J. C. Catford. Oxford University Press, – Linguistics – pages. Get this from a library! A linguistic theory of translation, by j.c. catford.. [J c Catford].

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Throughout this paper we make use of the abbreviations: Maria Sol rated it really liked it May 13, With the medium levels the situation is different. In transference, which we discuss in the next section, there is, indeed, transference of meaning ; but this is not translation in the usual sense.

A Linguistic Theory of Translation

Zay Neb rated it it was amazing Apr 28, Here the SL modifier, This — a term in a grammatical system of deictics — has as its TL equivalent the modifier Le present, an article -f- a lexical adjective. To make it transltion acceptable to the general reader, an opening chapter has been added which dis- cusses briefly the nature of language and the categories of general linguistics as well as giving an outline of the analysis and descrip- tion of English which underlies the discussion of a number of examples.

This is why translation equivalence can nearly always be established at sentence-rank — the sentence is translqtion grammatical unit most directly related to speech-function within a situation. The exponent of J.c.catfprd is always a single syllable. Semantics of Thinking, Thelry and Translation.

Every normal adult plays a series transaltion different social roles — one man, for example, may function at different times as head of a family, motorist, cricketer, member of a religious group, professor of biochemistry and so on, and within his idiolect he has varieties shared by other persons and other idiolects appropriate to these roles.

In terms of the theory of meaning which we make use of here — a theory deriving largely from the views of J. Primary clause structures include: Thus, in the examples above, the feet represented in A B G.


In the next paragraph we shall, for simplicity, confine ourselves to language in its spoken manifestation.

The TL text must be relatable to at least some of the situational features to which the SL text is relatable. When syllable-divisions liinguistic within a foot their phonic exponent is a momentary retardation of the major chest-pulse movement. Has it, however, taken with it the meaning which it has in Finnish?

The exponent of H is the lexical item man, which remains unchanged. There is also replacement of SL graphology by TL graphology — but the TL graphological form is by off means a translation equivalent of the SL graphological form.

Even within one and the same language, democracymay be relatable to some different situational features in the registers of different political parties. Khaled Ziada rated it really liked it Jan 19, Cross-Cultural Linguistic Translation and Relativism. However, at a further degree of delicacy we may recognize two sub-classes of adjectives; those operating at M and those opera- ting at Q in Ngp structure.

Similarly, in the example in 5. It is particularly clear in the case of 7 for n that this is graphological translation, since the only thing in common between n and 7 is relation to similar graphic substance. We can, in other words, say that bathroom and bath-robe are bad translations, and if no other English lexical items, less suprising in these co-texts, can be found — then we may say that linghistic SL items sauna and yukata are untranslatable — for cultural reasons.

On this, see Chapter 6 below.

A Linguistic Theory of Translation by J.C. Catford

This is not the place to give a full description, even in summary form, of English — but the indications given here will serve to codify what has already been referred to, and will help to elucidate most of the references to English given later.

In translation, however, it quite frequently happens that this formal correspondence is departed from, i. And here again, the equivalence is between varieties ; an English j.c.caford text may have, inter alia, a relatively high percentage occurrence of passives- its Russian translation a relatively high percentage occurrence of javlaels’a -f- instrumental.

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At each occurrence, the particular SL item may always have the same TL equivalent. Every language has its characteristic phonology and many languages have j.c.catord character- istic theoy. These two examples in fact illustrate two different types of translation-shift; in A, there is structure-shift; in B, there is unit- shift, since in this case the Gaelic equivalent of a feature at clause-rank is the selection of a particular term in a system operating at group rank.

The exponent of S in the English text is the item thisa term in the system of English deictics; the Arabic translation equi- valent is haada. A Process-Oriented Shift Analysis. SL text 2 A woman came out of the house. A structure is an arrange- ment of elements.

The following are exam- ples of English tone-groups the pitch-pattern being roughly indicated by lines drawn over the texts. Numerosity is a contextually irrelevant feature of situations for the N. This definition is intentionally wide — not vague, though it may appear so at first sight.

It is not operating directly in the clause, but within a Nominal Group, as exponent of Q. Those where the difficulty is linguistic, and those where it is cultural. We may repeat this process for any portion of the full text — asking, for instance, for the French equivalent of 1 It should be noted that this, and almost all other examples in this paper, are decontextualized translatlon It provides categories which are jj.c.catford in all branches of linguistic science.