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2SA1266 Datasheet, Equivalent, Cross Reference Search

Transistor and diode identification? Nov 17, 1.

Oct 29, 1, Can anyone suggest a replacement transistor for the “K” and replacement diodes? I’m not having eatasheet luck positively identifying the transistor, and I’m not sure if the diodes likely need to be schottky diodes?

A(TRANS) NTE Equivalent NTEA TRANSISTOR PNP SILIC – Wholesale Electronics

As best I can tell it’s an n-channel FETbut details are elusive. I’m hoping someones experience can make up for my lack of knowledge and lack of schematic. These parts are on the power supply side of a “Directed d” w class-D audio amplifier that runs on 12v. Every single output and power supply transistor is shorted, and visually it appears trannsistor this little transistor and diodes were killed as well.

Nov 17, 2. Jun 22, 7, 1, Nov 17, 3. Nov 17, 4.

Apr 5, 18, 3, Hello, The A will tell me the transistor is an 2SA Most times the 2S is not printed on the transistors. Nov 17, 5. In this case do you think there’s anything special about the diodes, or should I be OK with a generic diode that has a reverse voltage at least as high as the peak supported voltage of the transistor?

Nov 17, 6.

(PDF) A Datasheet PDF Download – 2SA

Oct 27, 6, 1, Diode identification Posted by styo in forum: Strange Diode bridge rectifier identification and function Posted by grim22x7 in forum: Simple diode and transistor circuit Posted by jegues in forum: Datadheet diode and transistor Posted by Onilll in forum: HELP transistor and diode circuits Posted by niches in forum: You May Also Like: Fluid sound effects generated in real time.

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Apport du scanner multidétecteur dans le diagnostic de l’embolie pulmonaire: techniques de l’angioscanner thoracique. F. Fadhlaoui, M. Grissa, M. Souei. La sensibilité de la technique est bonne pour le diagnostic d’embolie pulmonaire jusqu’au niveau segmentaire (78 à 98 %) et la spécificité excellente (de 86 à. Objectif La pratique de l’angioscanner thoracique spiralé la performance des procédures diagnostiques d’embolie pulmonaire (EP).

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L’angioscanner pulmonaire : regarder le cœur ! – EM|consulte

With a mortality rate at approximately 25 percent, pulmonary embolism PE is one of the leading causes of maternal death during pregnancy and postpartum. Moreover, foetuses are especially sensitive to dose.

Over-diagnosis may also result in treatments that might be dangerous for the unborn child and the mother. Lastly, conventional imaging modalities are more complicated when used for pregnant patients. When PE is suspected, a computed tomography CT scan may be recommended in some countries as a quick response.

Diagnosing cases of Angiosfanner presents particular challenges, however; pregnancy-related physiological changes have the potential to impair image quality to such an extent that a diagnosis may no longer be possible. Not only is CTPA usually readily available, it also enables comprehensive assessment of the thorax and visualization of the thrombus to support differential diagnoses Fig.

During CTPA, radiologists and radiographers subjectively evaluate injection quality to check for sufficient contrast enhancement of the pulmonary arteries. Objective evidence would be when a region of interest ROI placed at the pulmonary artery indicates a density higher than HU.

As evidenced in the literature, CTPA in pregnant women tends to produce images of lower quality with anguoscanner contrast enhancement compared with scans of non-pregnant patients.

This reduced quality of CTPA in pregnant women is caused almost entirely by pregnancy related physiological changes that can last for several weeks postpartum. Researchers conducted a survey to find out whether other imaging facilities had a specific protocol for CT pulmonary angiography in pregnant women and how satisfied they were with the quality of these types of examinations.

Case Report

Results showed that very few institutions had a specific protocol and levels of satisfaction varied widely. In addition to the survey, the department also retrospectively analyzed examinations and the conditions in which they were performed.

The researchers identified four fundamental factors that could improve contrast enhancement of the pulmonary arteries during CT angiography in pregnant women: Prohibition of deep inspiration to prevent the Valsalva Maneuver, low voltage scan, appropriate injection volume and rate, and early acquisition.

As a result, they proposed adjustment of these four parameters to improve pulmonary arterial contrast enhancement and, therefore, image quality. In the following, we will take a closer look at these four parameters. This is known as the Valsalva Maneuver. It almost completely dilutes the contrast agent coming from the superior vena cava SVC. Voltage affects image quality, particularly when contrast is involved.

When voltage is decreased, the photoelectric effect dominates and contrast increases. Conversely, when voltage is increased, the dominant Compton Effect reduces contrast.

Moreover, lowering kV from to also considerably reduces radiation, given that the dose delivered to the patient is proportional to the square of the voltage at an identical mAs. This remarkable speed means that time is now also a key factor in pulmonary imaging. Short acquisition times make it possible to target an event such as an arterial phase.

The disadvantage is that if the acquisition window misses the point of maximum enhancement, the arteries will not be fully opacified and it becomes difficult to rule out pulmonary embolism.

Article medicale Tunisie, Article medicale Embolie pulmonaire aiguë , scanner multicoupe

This is why timing is considered so important: In the case of pregnancy, the increased speed of blood flow requires an earlier acquisition that starts when the pulmonair vena cava is opacified vs the opacification of the pulmonary trunk in the general population.

This has pulmonaird to help reduce mortality rates and achieve better outcomes. With the improved diagnostic image quality, PE could also potentially be ruled out faster allowing patients to possibly be discharged sooner and given peace of mind.

For further information, please refer to the original article: Embolie Pulmonaire et Grossesse. Ann Fr Anesth Reanim.

Grossesse et embolie pulmonaire: Mescape, Aug 09, Prise en charge des principales urgences thoraciques et abdominales durant la grossesse.

Quality of CT pulmonary angiography for suspected pulmonary embolus in pregnancy. Does pregnancy affect vascular enhancement in patients undergoing CT pulmonary angiography? CTPA for the diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism during pregnancy.

Pulmonary CT angiography protocol adapted to the hemodynamic effects of pregnancy. Measurement of caval blood flow with MRI angioscnner respiratory maneuvers: Thorac Imaging ; 22 2. Image quality and radiation exposure at pulmonary CT angiography with or kVp protocol: Feuillets de Radiologie ; 47 3: Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis in Pregnancy: Overcoming CT imaging limitations.


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Johnson, Ben November Overview. Most widely held works by Ben Johnson.

The neuro-immune system can then do its job of healing whatever is wrong in the body. Loyd’s findings were validated by tests and by thousands of people from all over the world who have used The Healing Code system to correct virtually any physical, emotional, or relational issues, as well as breakthroughs in career success. Healing waters by Ben Johnson Book 5 editions published between and in English and Spanish and held by 75 WorldCat member libraries worldwide Acid-alkaline balance is the key to optimum health, and now you alexsnder achieve it simply by drinking nature’s most bountiful liquid– water.

Johnson explains why water is crucial to good health, and reveals everything you need to know lloyd ionized water, a natural remedy udrawiania is both pure and amazingly effective.

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Johnson, Ben November [WorldCat Identities]

His testing also revealed that there is a “Universal Healing Code” that will heal most issues for most people. In this book you will get that Universal Healing Code and more. Milagro o estamos ante el mayor descubrimiento en el campo de la medicina?

The secret of health: Kod uzdrawiania by Alex Loyd Book 6 editions published between and in Polish and held by 19 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Radical Rethink on Ma’amograms refutes the medical myths and fallacies at the root of today’s conventional breast health care protocols, offering readers safer solutions to breast cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

Ben discusses the new research behind practical and effective alternatives to harmful mammograms, biopsies, radiation and chemo therapies.

Dr. Alexander Loyd | Creator of The Healing Code · Dr. Alex

His holistic approach includes recommendations on diet, exercise, nutritional supplements, and lifestyle changes to counteract the effects alexanxer dangerous toxins and medical practices that create the harmful conditions in which breast cancer can arise. Executive compensation, size, profit and cost in the electric utility industry by Ben Johnson 2 editions published in in English and held by 4 WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

Il codice della guarigione: Alex Loyd discovered how to activate a physical function built into the body that consistently and predictably removes this source so that the neuro-immune system takes over its job of healing whatever is wrong uzdawiania the body. His findings were validated scientifically and by the thousands of people from all over the world who have used The Healing Codes.

In this book you will get that Universal Healing Code, which takes only 6 minutes to do. Ihre Basis ist die Energiemedizin. Johnson, Ben Nov. Project Page Feedback Known Problems.


Zajęcia z etyki zawodowej w roku akademickim Psycholog zajęć prof. dr hab. Jerzego Brzezińskiego proszę zwracać się bezpośrednio do Niego. Results 1 – 26 of 26 Discover Book Depository’s huge selection of Jerzy-Brzezinski books online. Free delivery worldwide on over Etyka zawodu psychologa. niewska M., Etyka zawodu psychologa, Wydawnictwo. Naukowe PWN, Warszawa 3. Brzeziński J., Toeplitz-Winiewska M. [ed.], Praktyka psychologiczna w.

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Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Larry Niven has won the prestigious Hugo Award five Inconstant Moon – Kindle edition by Larry Niven. Download it once. 3 of 5 stars. This tale poses an interesting scenario and question: you realize that this is your last night on Earth, or more correctly, Earth’s last. Inconstant Moon by Larry Niven – book cover, description, publication history.

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Want to Read Currently Unconstant Read. Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. Preview — Inconstant Moon by Larry Niven. Inconstant Moon by Larry Niven. Seven brilliant short stories by the award-winning author of Ringworld.

The sun had gone nova. Belters didn’t get addicted to current stimulation, so why did the spacer die with electrodes in his brain? The things that mad Seven brilliant short stories by the award-winning author of Ringworld. The things that made it drove a space explorer raving mad. These are three of the superb stories in this new collection by Larry Niven. The others are just as good.

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Inconstant Moon

To ask other readers questions about Inconstant Moonplease sign up. Lists with This Book. Jul 21, Stephen rated it liked it Shelves: Good short story by Larry Niven about how a man who realizes the world will end in the morning spends his last night.

Jun 19, York rated it really liked it Shelves: Apr 04, Jerry Jose rated it really liked it. It is most unusual to read an end of world iinconstant and be extremely smug. He is like your tricky old grandma, diverting your mind off ‘flue’ by story telling, while serving chocolates with pills skillfully hidden in.

Here’s your fun Larry Niven science quiz again! Are you ready for the first question? You immediately call your girlfriend and say you’re coming round to see her. This isn’t a icnonstant when she should go to bed early and sleep, even if she does have an important meeting tomorrow. View all 10 comments.

Inconstant Moon by Larry Niven – FictionDB

Sep 21, Jose Moa rated it really liked it Shelves: A coleection of short stories where stand out Inconstant moon where a man lives in full his last hours as he realices by the extraordinary bright of the moon tha some is happanig to the sun probably becoming a nova.

Dec 12, Bob Rust rated it it was amazing. Nov 25, Eric rated it it was amazing Shelves: The scenario is possible, so stock up on wine and duck liver, however that’s spelled Aug 21, Dan rated it really liked it. Excellent story, appeals to my apocalyptic thought patterns.

Also what the movie ‘Melancholia’ should have been. Aug 27, Daryl rated it it was amazing. Niven’s short-form prose is fantastic!

Within the space of a handful of pages, he is able to wrap you up in a world and a life you’ve almost no prior understanding off. While some stories are more entertaining than others, and the titular Inconstant Moon is one of the weaker one, each is a pleasure to read, moving you swiftly from one story to another and giving you a fascinating glance at each world. I especially like that many of the stories are set in the same universe, but at another point in Niven’s short-form prose is fantastic!

I especially like that many of the stories are set in the same universe, but at another point in time or location.

Events and characters are referenced across stories, so each is essentially snapshot filling an album that can be looked over time and again.

Highly recommended if mlon like to read something that takes little commitment. The finale, Death by Ecstasy, is one of the highlights of this book. Dec 19, Jeremy rated it really liked it. I picked up the book because I had enjoyed inconstanr Ringworld series. I love the big scale, “what-if” stories Larry Niven writes, overlayed with a great plot and interesting characters.

Plenty of such stories in this niveb. May 30, J rated it it was amazing. Short story of approximately 20 minutes of sheer terror followed by the full weight of both apocalypse and hope. Feb 22, James Thomas rated it really liked it Shelves: I thought it might be interesting to rate each short story individually.

I gave it 4 stars overall, though, simply by rounding down; I reserve 5 stars for books I consider nearly perfect.

Inconstant Moon – Wikipedia

A very, very good collection of “hard” science fiction stories. Inconstant Moon, Becalmed in Hell, and Death by Ecstasy are the stand o I thought it might be interesting to rate each short story individually. Inconstant Moon, Becalmed in Hell, and Death by Ecstasy are the stand out stories, with Death by Ecstasy, an almost proto-cyberpunk tale, being one of the best things I’ve read in a while.

The edition I read contained 12 stories instead of 7. Inconstant moon This story is what made me want to read the book. It was good, but not as good as I expected. I’d like to see more of the aftermath of the event. I like how the story was laid out, slowly drawing towards the final reveal of what’s going on.

Bordered in Black A delightfully horrifying story about the dangers of space exploration. Not at all what I expected from The edition I read contained 12 stories instead of 7. Not at all what I expected from the title. It initially seemed like a homophobic story, but as I read further, I changed my opinion.

Probably my least favorite story though. Not really science fiction. A man picks up a hitchhiker who tries to rob him.

‘Arrival’ Producer to Develop ‘Inconstant Moon’ Sci-Fi Movie for Fox

Possibly my favorite nigen. The story ended on a really cool note. One Face A spaceship is thrown far into the future. How will the passengers survive when all the known stars have burned themselves out? It almost seems like a precursor to Niven’s Known Space universe, as some of the mentioned locations are the same, but the technology is different. Becalmed in Hell A manned mission to Venus runs into problems when the brain controlling the ship is unable to feel it’s thrusters.

Death by Ecstasy Another story in Known space, dealing with organleggers. I hadn’t read alrry stories set in this era of Known Space, and haven’t read any Gil Hamilton stories. An interesting take on what might happen if universal organ mmoon were possible.

Feb 26, Valerie added it. I don’t have a copy of this book. If I did, I’d write a complete table of contents. I’m pretty sure I originally read the title story in a pulp magazine, but I couldn’t say offhand which. Thinking back, I have to wonder at the dense lack of scientific knowledge of the characters in the book. It’s just that they didn’t know that the sun is not the kind of star to go nova it’s not big enough. It will eventually swell to a diameter large enough to be very devastating to Earth–in a few billion years I don’t have a copy of this book.

It will eventually swell to a diameter large enough to be very devastating to Earth–in a few billion years ; it’s inconstan that they didn’t know that there’d be plenty of warning of a star that was due to nova if it was as nearby as the Sun is. I also had quite a few doubts about the residual and secondary impacts of the solar flare.

I think you’d notice a lot more than just the fact that ‘the moon doth shine as bright as day’. And not just after sunrise, either. Massive, rapid changes in the heat equilibrium would, for one thing, cause major storms. And the associated interference with electromagnetic communications would make anything but face-to-face contact almost impossible. Not to mention spectacular aurorae.

All in all, it struck me as another incnstant a long line of stories where fascinating premises were only sketched out, and not really followed up. May 25, Andrew rated invonstant really liked it. This was one of my first introductions to Larry Niven. I went on not only to collect his body of work but also his collaborations books like Footfall and Mote in Gods Eye and one of my all time favourites, Legacy of Herot as well as his long running spin off series the Man-Kzin wars.


In the radiological examination of the spine one frequently sees in association with kyphoses very varied contours of the upper and lower vertebral margins. Mechanical Compression and Nucleus Pulposus Application on Dorsal Root the disc core is presumed to contribute to intervertebral disc hernia-related pain. This report examines 18 surgically proven L3/4 herniated nucleus pulposus ( HNP), all having myelogram, CT and adequate neurological evaluation. It will focus.

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A combination of mechanical compression caused by a protruding disc and leakage of nucleus pulposus NP from the disc core is presumed to contribute to intervertebral disc hernia-related pain.

Experimental models of disc hernia including both components have resulted in changes in neuronal activity at the level of the dorsal root ganglion DRG and spinal cord, but changes within the brain have been less well studied.

However, acute application of NP to a DRG nuklejs mechanical compression rapidly increases neuronal activity in the thalamus, a major brain relay nucleus processing information from sensory pathways including ascending nociceptive tracts. The combination of mechanical compression and NP might therefore result in further increases in central neuronal activity.

Using an experimental disc herniation rat model including both mechanical compression and NP the present study aimed to investigate changes in neuronal activity in the contralateral thalamic ventral posterior lateral nucleus in vivo. In all animals, light mechanical compression of the DRG depressed the number of evoked neuronal responses.

The contribution of acute DRG compression and disc material leakage to changes in transmission in central neuronal networks is likely to be complex and to involve both short-term and long-term effects. Since a light mechanical compression may reduce transmission in nociceptive pathways, it is possible that the presence or absence of NP pulpozus crucial for pain development in the acute phase of disc herniation.

I ntervertebral jernia hernia was first described by Mixter and Barr, 1 and the ensuing pain has been suggested to arise as a result of the mechanical compression that a ruptured disc exerts on adjacent nerves.

While mechanical compression is still presumed to be of major importance, 2 — 4 leakage of nucleus pulposus NP from the disc core onto nervous tissue may also contribute to the experience of pain by causing a local inflammatory response and inducing both structural and functional changes in nerve roots. Experimental models aiming to explore the origin of disc hernia-related pain often include both a mechanical and an inflammatory component.

The results have suggested that the pullosus of both these components increases the effect in terms of behavior 1415 and in neuronal activity by resulting in more pronounced changes in dorsal root conduction velocity than when either of these interventions are applied alone.

The thalamus is the major brain relay nucleus for sensory information, including transmission in nociceptive pathways from the spinal cord en route to cortical regions where the information is processed further.

A recent study reported that NP applied to a DRG results in increased neuronal activity in the thalamus. However, the questions of whether similar or more potent changes may be induced by the combination of mechanical compression and NP exposure, as suggested by behavior studies, 15 as well as whether exposure to NP prior to the mechanical compression would have resulted in further changes in central neuronal activity were not investigated.

The aim of the present study was to investigate possible changes in neuronal thalamic activity using an acute experimental disc hernia model in the rodent. We included both light mechanical compression of the DRG and exposure to NP, mimicking the clinical situation in which a disc protrusion may be followed by a rupture of the annulus fibrosus with subsequent NP leakage.

This model has previously been shown to induce behavioral changes as determined by von Frey withdrawal tests 15 and video analysis of changes in spontaneous behavior 14 as well as morphological changes in the peripheral nervous system, such as changes in the capsule surrounding the DRG. All experimental procedures were approved by the regional animal ethics committee. The aims of the present study were addressed in four different experimental series Fig. Study design for series 1—4.

The boxes in the left panel indicate the intervention performed on day 1 for each group of animals. An experimental flow chart for the acute electrophysiological and behavioral experiments performed on day 2 is shown on the right. Anesthesia was induced with isoflurane Baxter Medical AB. Following a midline incision, the left facet joint between the fourth and fifth lumbar vertebrae L4—L5 was removed to expose the L4 DRG.

In 28 rats, a syringe connected to a G injection needle was used to incise the disc and inject small volumes of air until NP leaked out and could be applied to the exposed DRG. Twenty-six sham-operated animals were subjected to the same surgical procedures with the exception of the disc incision.

The animals were tracheotomized and attached to a respirator with neuromuscular transmission blocked by intravenous pancronium bromide Pavulon, total dose 0. The left sciatic nerve was transected at knee level and mounted on a pair of silver-ball stimulating electrodes in a pool of paraffin created by skin flaps.

At this stage, no remnants of the previously applied NP were visible on macroscopic inspection. Light mechanical compression was induced by gently dislocating the L4 DRG with a G needle and was maintained by inserting the needle in the underlying bone, as previously described by Omarker and Myers. A laminectomy was performed at Th11—12, exposing the spinal cord, and used for transdural cord dorsum recordings via a silver-ball electrode in contact with the surface of the spinal cord.

A craniotomy was performed, and the dura mater was removed to insert a recording electrode into the VPL nucleus of the thalamus Fig. Experimental set-up with stimulation and recording sites. A Schematic drawing with a sciatic nerve and stimulation electrode; b dorsal root ganglion DRG for exposure to nucleus pulposus NP and light mechanical compression; c recording electrode at the surface of the spinal cord; d recording site in the ventral posterior lateral VPL nucleus.

Dotted horizontal lines represent discrimination lines used for spike counting. The electrode track and recording site corresponding to d in the schematic drawing in A is indicated by a dotted vertical line and a filled circle.

D Representative cresyl violet—stained histological section of lesion, corresponding to the drawing in C.

Spinal disc herniation

The sciatic nerve was stimulated 50— times at each recording point by a short train of impulses three stimuli, 0. One group of animals subjected to the same surgical procedures as in series 2 and 3 were tested for changes in paw withdrawal thresholds series 4; see Fig. The investigator performing the test was blinded with regard to the surgical intervention. The von Frey monofilaments were applied in order of increasing stiffness, starting with 0.

A positive withdrawal was scored when the animal responded to two out of three stimuli presented.

Original data records from the electrophysiological experiments were stored online using a software pulpsus designed by E. Pihlgren University of Gothenburg. After positioning the recording electrode in the contralateral VPL nucleus a series of baseline records were obtained while stimulating the ipsilateral sciatic nerve.

Kruskal—Wallis test was used to compare the number of evoked responses at different time points in between groups, and paired t -test was used to compare changes in the number of evoked responses between baseline and each separate time point within the individual groups. Behavioral test data were analyzed with paired-samples t -test before nhkleus after intervention surgery for both the left hind paw and the right hind paw, and for differences between groups with Mann—Whitney test.

P values less than 0. Following the addition of NP an increased number of evoked responses were observed, heria of whether the mechanical compression remained or was removed. The mean number of evoked responses is presented as a percentage of baseline records.

Effects of application of NP in disc-punctured and sham-operated animals. Furthermore, no differences were found when comparing the disc-punctured and sham-operated animals. Experimental models designed to study the origin of disc hernia-related pain often include both a mechanical and an inflammatory component, and the results obtained have suggested that these two components may mutually enhance each other in terms of effects on behavior 141520 and neuronal activity.

For this purpose, we used an experimental model simulating two hypothetical clinical situations, in pulpoaus the disc protrusion may or may not be preceded by a small continuous leakage of NP from the interior of the disc due to ruptures in the annulus fibrosus. Since disc herniation surgery includes a mechanical decompression while the possible chemical effect of the disc material may remain, series 1 included subgroups in which the effects of applied NP nukleuz investigated at the level of the thalamus with and without remaining compression.

The results suggest that in the acute phase, light mechanical compression results in reduced evoked neuronal activity in the thalamus that is rapidly reversed following decompression. Thus, it cannot be determined whether the recovery observed in series 1 and 3 at later time points and in the presence of NP only reflects the natural time course of changes in central neuronal activity following DRG compression per se and is due to a recovery of nerve function, or whether the recovery is at least in part due to the application of NP.

In addition, nerve compression has been demonstrated to reduce or completely abolish neuronal firing and more often results in paresthesia and muscle weakness than in pain. Taken together, these results may therefore indicate that a single episode of NP leakage does not result in lasting changes in neuronal activity, but that any such effects are restricted to acute and short-lasting events.

The cellular mechanisms behind the observed effects of light mechanical compression and NP exposure are not addressed in this study. Mechanical compression may cause a block in action potentials propagating toward the spinal cord, resulting in a reduced number of evoked responses, 23 — 25 which would be consistent with the findings in the present study.

Importantly, the observed decrease was not likely to be due to irreversible fiber damage because the addition of NP not only reversed the decrease in neuronal activity but also resulted in an increased activity while the mechanical compression still remained.

In addition, removal of the compression resulted in immediate recovery, further suggesting that the decrease induced by light mechanical compression is transient in the acute phase. The model used in the present work, however, includes extensive surgery and therefore does not allow recordings in vivo to be taken other than at the terminal experiment.

It therefore cannot be excluded that the NP leakage onto the DRG introduced on day 1 might already have altered the activity before baseline records were obtained on day 2. However, a statistical comparison of the raw data obtained as baseline records failed to reveal any significant differences between the experimental groups Kruskal—Wallis test; nonsignificant. Several ascending tracts carrying nociceptive information from the spinal cord to the brain are relayed in the thalamus 31 — 33 and changes in evoked neuronal responses in the VPL nucleus may thus reflect changes in activity in a number of nociceptive pathways.

Graded nociceptive stimuli to the rat plantar surface were recently reported to result in increases in firing rate and in the number of activated neurons in the VPL nucleus and to be associated with increased neuronal activity in cortical areas involved in nociceptive processing.

Taken together, the findings in the present study using an experimental acute disc hernia model including light mechanical compression and application of NP to the DRG suggest that any ensuing changes in transmission in central neuronal networks are likely to be complex. As a light mechanical compression may reduce transmission in nociceptive pathways it is possible that the presence or absence of NP is crucial for the development of pain development in the acute phase of disc herniation.

This study was supported by grants from the Dr. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List Biores Open Access v. Find articles by Elin Nilsson. Find articles by Helena Brisby. Find articles by Katarina Rask. Find articles by Ingela Hammar. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. BoxSE 30 Gothenburg, Sweden. CopyrightMary Ann Liebert, Inc. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Nucleus pulposus | Radiology Reference Article |

Abstract A combination of pklposus compression caused by a protruding disc and leakage of nucleus pulposus NP from the disc core is presumed to contribute to intervertebral disc hernia-related pain. Introduction I ntervertebral disc hernia was first described by Mixter and Barr, 1 and the ensuing pain has been suggested to arise as a result of the mechanical compression that a ruptured disc exerts on adjacent nerves. Methods All experimental procedures were approved by the regional animal ethics committee.

Study design The aims of the present study were addressed nukleys four different experimental series Fig. Open in a separate window.

Lateral L3/4 herniated nucleus pulposus: clinical and imaging considerations.

Stimulation and recording The sciatic nerve was stimulated 50— times at each recording point by a short train of impulses three stimuli, 0.

Behavioral test One group of animals subjected to the same surgical procedures as in series 2 and 3 were tested for changes in paw withdrawal thresholds series 4; see Fig. Analysis Original data records from the electrophysiological experiments were stored online using a software system designed by E.

Discussion Experimental models designed to study the origin of disc hernia-related pain often include both a mechanical and an inflammatory component, and the results obtained have suggested that these two components may mutually enhance each other in terms of effects on behavior 141520 and neuronal activity. Author Disclosure Statement No competing financial interests exist.

Rupture of the intervertebral disc with involvement of the spinal canal. N Engl J Med. An experimental model for chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion produced by intervertebral foramen stenosis in the rat.

Pathoanatomy and pathophysiology of nerve root compression. Spine Phila Pa Sciatica and the intervertebral disc; an experimental study. J Bone Joint Surg Am.


The Anglican Chant Psalter provides congregations and choirs with a method of singing the psalms using Anglican chant; this method underlies the sense of the. English chant (also known as Anglican chant) developed as a harmonized appropriation of the plainsong of. Western Christendom. Today, this style of chant . An entire psalter of one hundred fifty psalms in The Book of Common Prayer translation set to Anglican chant inthe time-honored “speech rhythm” pointing ofThe.

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Anglican chantalso known as English chant[1] [2] is a way to sing unmetrical texts, including psalms and canticles from the Bibleby matching the natural speech-rhythm of the words to the notes of a simple harmonized melody.

Anglican chant qnglican formerly in widespread use in Anglican and Episcopal churchesbut today, Anglican chant is sung primarily in Anglican cathedrals and parish churches that have retained a choral liturgical tradition. Additionally, Anglican chant may be sung in Roman Catholic[4] [5] Lutheran[6] [7] [8] Presbyterian[9] [10] and Reformed [11] [12] churches.

Anglican chant grew out of the plainchant tradition during the English Reformation. When singing a text in Anglican chant, the natural rhythm of the words as they would be spoken by a careful speaker governs how the music is fitted to the words.

The majority of the words are psalted and rhythmically chanted over the reciting noteswhich are found in the first, fourth, eighth, eleventh etc. Formerly the rhythm of the non-reciting notes was strictly observed, but nowadays the rhythm is based on the natural cadence of speech.

Thus, the length of each of these notes bears little relation to the normal musical value of a note such as a minim or semi-breve. Anglican chant was well established by the 18th century. The earliest known examples are single chants written by John Blow, Henry Purcell and their contemporaries.

The Anglican Chant Psalter | Souq – UAE

Earlier examples by Tudor composers such as Tallis, Farrant and others are not original. The earliest double chants are from about The text is pointed for chanting by assigning each verse or phrase to a simple harmonised melody of 7, 14, 21 or 28 bars known respectively as a single, double, triple or quadruple chant.

An example of a single chant is shown above.

Below are the psalterr four verses chajt the Magnificatwith the text coloured to show which words correspond to which notes in the music “the chant”.

Various psalters have been published over the years, with each one showing how the chant angliczn to be fitted to the words and each having its own variation on the precise rules for doing so. The rules used in the Parish Psalter one of the more popular psalters, edited by Sydney Nicholson are as follows:. Other psalters use different notation; modern psalters such as the New St Paul’s Cathedral Psalter John Scott, have adopted the following convention:.

The example above is a single chant. This is mostly only used for very anglicam psalms half a dozen verses or so. The most commonly used chants are double chants. These are twice the length of a single chant. The music of the chant is repeated for every pair of verses. This reflects the structure of the Hebrew poetry of many of the psalms: Each verse is in two halves – the second half answers the first; the verses are in pairs – the second verse answers the first. Triple and quadruple chants are considerably rarer.

They appeared from the latter part of the 19th chang to cover some of the exceptions to this format. They set the verses of the psalm in groups of three or four verses respectively. Psalm 2 for example is suited to psaler triple chant; a quadruple chant vhant be used for Psalm A double chant is divided into “quarters”, each of which has the music for psaltr a verse.

Triple and quadruple chants may also be described as containing six or eight quarters. If the entire text or a section of it has an odd number of verses, the second half of the chant is usually repeated at an appropriate point, which may be marked “2nd part”. Similarly, “3rd part” markings may be used for triple chants. Below are the four lines of the doxology Gloria Patri commonly known as the “Gloria”with the text coloured to show which words correspond to which notes in the music pointing varies from choir to choir:.

Glory be to the Father, and ‘ to the ‘ Son: The doxology Gloria Patriusually sung at the end of a psalm or canticleis two verses long. Depending on the type of chant, it is sung in one of the following ways:. Psalms may be sung unaccompanied or accompanied by an organ or other instrument. Organists use a variety of registrations to mirror the changing mood of the words from verse to verse; but the organ should never be so loud that the words cannot be clearly heard.

Organists ajglican sometimes indulge in word paintingusing effects such as a deep pedal note on the word “thunder”, a harsh reed tone for psslter contrasting with a mixture for “light”, or more frivolously!

Psalm may be the hardest to illustrate, including both a “pelican of the wilderness” and an “owl of the waste places”.

A further stylistic technique is used in cathedrals and churches which use an antiphonal style of singing. In this psaler, the choir is divided into two equal half-choirs, each having representation for the four musical parts, and usually facing one another. They are typically named Decani usually the half-choir to the south side and Cantoris usually the half-choir to the north side. Then the choir may employ either of the techniques known as quarter-chanting and half-chanting.

In quarter-chanting which is more true to the structure of the Hebrew poetrythe side that starts usually decani sing the first quarter of the chant and thus the first half of the verse. The side that did not start usually cantoris then sing the second quarter of the chant and thus the second half of the verse. This sequence then repeats.

The English Chant Psalter

In half-chanting which is more true to antiphonal singing in the Gregorian styledecani sing the first two quarters of the chant, and cantoris the next two quarters so that each half-choir sings a whole verse at a time.

With antiphonal singing, the first two verses, the Gloria and perhaps the last two verses are often sung by the whole choir. A few choirs elaborate further, e. Occasionally some or all trebles may sing a descant; this usually happens only in the final verse of the psalm or the Gloria. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

August Learn how and angljcan to remove this template message. Concordia Theological Seminary Press. The Oxford Companion to Music 10th ed.

Concordia Theological Seminary Press,http: The Book of Psalms for Singing 3rd ed. The Anglican Chant Psalter. Preces and responses Magnificat Nunc Dimittis.

Anglican church music portal Christian music Portal. Retrieved from ” https: Articles needing additional references from August All articles needing additional references Articles with hAudio microformats. Views Read Edit View history.

This anglifan was last edited on 9 Decemberat By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Problems playing this file?


Kathryn M. Connor, M.D.,n and Jonathan R.T. Davidson, M.D. Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a 5-point scale. (0–4), with. The Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) was created to address aspects of resilience and for use in clinical practice. Resilience is considered as the. We describe a new rating scale to assess resilience. The Connor-Davidson Resilience scale (CD-RISC) comprises of 25 items, each rated on a.

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Connor and Jonathan R. Davidson as a means of assessing resilience. Existing scales of resilience were considered inadequate because they lacked generalizability. These groups included a community sample, primary care outpatients, general psychiatric outpatients, a clinical ccd-risc of generalized anxiety disorderand two clinical trials of PTSD.

The authors drew sacle for the scale’s content from the work of previous researchers of hardiness, most notably S. Kobasa [2] and M. Factor analysis of the original scale produced five factors: The individual items are as follows table adapted from Connor and Davidson [1]:. In order for a measure to demonstrate good construct connor–davidson, it needs to be based on a complex, detailed theoretical construct i. If the measure has good construct validity, then it should “behave” as a measure of this complex concept should behave.

This indicates that the resilience scores obtained from the CD-RISC correspond to lower levels of perceived stress and perceived stress vulnerability, respectively.

Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

Bezdjian and colleagues used the CD-RISC to examine the relationship between resilience and 6-month unsuitability attrition i. Service members diagnosed with a mental disorder at 6 months of service had also reported lower levels of resilience at basic training as compared to those who were not diagnosed with a mental disorder.

It assessed resilience in members of the general population as well as patients cc-risc Post-traumatic Stress Disorderdepressionand anxiety.

These items were chosen because Connor and Davidson deemed them capable cdd-risc “etymologically capturing the essence of resilience. They were confused about the conceptual relationships between items that appeared in the same factors e. In light of these concerns, the authors worked to establish the factor structure of the CD-RISC using a more systematic approach. Using factor analysis and three independent samples, the authors concluded that modifying the original scale to only include items would improve the validity of the scale.

They deleted items that, theoretically, would make sense to include in a measure of resilience but that did not carry enough statistical weight to still be included e. They used exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to justify these deletions. There were limitations to this analysis. For example, the samples used in this study to evaluate the psychometric properties of the item CD-RISC did not include a clinical sample or a sample of individuals who had experienced high levels of trauma.

Because of this, the conclusions drawn cannot be applied to these populations. The authors recognize that this could be considered an issue since the concept of resilience is often only considered relevant when related to the experience of trauma. However, the authors explain that resilience can be applied to more moderate levels of stress.

Therefore, the concept of resilience and the item CD-RISC measure can be applied to the general population, not just those who have experienced trauma. The authors also cite problems with using retrospective self-report to collect data which, in this case, resiliience unavoidable and suggest that a resilience measure that does not rely on self-report should be created.

Ensuring that a measure can be applied across different languages and cultures often proves to be a difficult task due to differences in societal norms and trouble with translation.

For example, a behavior that is considered normal connor-dvidson one culture could be perceived as completely abnormal in another, simply due to differences in how this behavior is perceived.

The CD-RISC was used to study resilience in patients suffering from end-stage liver disease and waiting for liver transplantation. Scores correlated positively with social support and health related quality of life. Another study used the original item CD-RISC to look connor-daviddson the relationship between resilience and the emotional response of women experiencing a diagnosis of breast cancer and breast cancer surgery.

Development of a new resilience scale: the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC).

Compared to the control group, the cancer patients who reported higher levels of resilience also reported comparable levels of emotional well-being, even though on average cancer patients reported more depression, anxiety, negative affect, and less happiness.

Since resilience is most often associated with the experience of trauma, exploring cd-rosc concept within the military population has become a popular topic of interest.

This particular population often experiences unique trauma and stressors compared to the general population, such as combat exposure. Combat exposure includes engaging in enemy fire, witnessing the injury or death of another person, or being in danger oneself. It was hypothesized that resilience would act as a moderator between trauma exposure and PTSD diagnosis and that higher levels of resilience would be associated with more positive psychological outcomes.

The findings supported both of these hypotheses. Results indicated that resilience acted as a protective factor resi,ience the development of PTSD and that it was significantly related to other aspects of psychological functioning e. Additionally, they hypothesized that postdeployment social support would mediate the relationship between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning.

Results supported both hypotheses.

Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale

Lower levels of unit support and postdeployment social support were associated with higher levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms and lower levels of resilience and psychosocial functioning. Resilience fully mediated the relationship between unit support and PTSD and depressive symptoms, which confirms the first hypothesis.

Finally, postdeployment social conno-rdavidson partially mediated the relationship between PTSD and depressive symptoms and psychosocial difficulties, which supports the second hypothesis. Connor and Davidson recognized the limitations of the CD-RISC, citing lack of validation against objective measures of resilience, the complications of defining resilience in relation to the measure i.

Multiple investigations have called into question the five factor model presented by Connor and Davidson.

Some studies have managed to obtain a five factor structure like Connor and Davidson, but the content of the models was not always the same. Another potential reason for the inconsistency in these findings is that the number of items in the original scale is insufficient. For example, Factor 5 spiritual influences only has two items that support it. Because of the discrepancies in these findings surrounding factor structure, the subscales of the original CD-RISC connor-davidsoh not recommended to be used alone.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. A means of testing human resilience.

This article is an orphanas no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles ; try the Find link tool for suggestions. Development of a new resilience scale: Depression and Anxiety, 18 2 Stressful life events, personality, and health: An inquiry into hardiness.

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 1 Resilience in the face of adversity: Protective factors and resistance to psychiatric disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, Quality of Life Research, 25 1 Resilience in the United States Air Force: Journal of Psychological Assessment, 29 5 Demographic and childhood environmental predictors of resilience in a community sample.

Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43 12 Rezilience of the resilience construct in posttraumatic stress disorder severity and functional correlates in military combat veterans who have served since September 11, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 71 7 Psychosocial buffers of traumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial difficulties in veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom: The role of resilience, unit support, and postdeployment social support.

Journal of Affective Disorders, Psychological resilience and postdeployment social support protect against traumatic stress and depressive symptoms in soldiers returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom. Depression and Anxiety, 26, — Psychometric properties and applications in psychopharmacological trials.

Validation redilience a item measure of resilience.

Journal of Traumatic Stress, 20 6 Stress and Health, Zeitschrift Fur Gesundheitpsychologie, Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 9, Behavioral Psychology-Psicologia Conductual, Resilience in organ transplantation: Journal of Personality Assessment, 97 5 Resilience as a predictor for emotional response to the diagnosis and surgery in breast cancer patients.

Clinical evaluation of a measure to assess combat exposure. A Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1 1 Psychiatry Investigation, 7, Positive youth development in the United States: History, efficacy and links to moral and character education.

Resilience in the operating room: Journal of Advanced Nursing, 59, Cross-cultural validity of the Connor-Davidson Scale: Data from Japanese population. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale among Chinese adolescents.

Comprehensive Psychiatry, 52, How is resilience associated with anxiety and depression? Analysis of factor score interactions within a homogeneous sample. German Journal of Psychiatry, 13, International Journal of Testing, 9,


View Hindu calendar , January in English. Get daily panchangam, rahu timings, sunrise & sunset timings in January, This creates a slight difficulty for those unacquainted with the Hindu calendar as demonstrated by the following example. In , Baishaki falls on April 14th. 17 Mar Fr Dvitiya K Vriddhi Hasta 18 Mar Sa Tritiya K Dhruva Citra 19 Mar Su Caturthi K Vyagata Swati 20 Mar Mo Pancami K Harsana.

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Calendar for the 206 of January, List of all Hindu festivals, holidays in January, is given below. Pausa and Magha are the lunar months corresponding to January.

Get Hindu calendar with panchang, muhurat,vrats and fasting days. Choose your location to find exact date and time of festival.

To change date, use the settings options below. Base Calendar Gregorian Gregorian Hindu.

Language English English Hindi. Date Picker Change Date.

Location UjjainMadhya PradeshIndia. S Purnima 14 H 14 IN 24 7: K Amavasya 29 H 29 IN 9 7: Pausa 1, Rahu – Pausa 2, Rahu – Pausa 3, Rahu – Kalnirjay 4, Rahu kalnitnay Pausa 5, Rahu – Pausa 6, Rahu – Pausa 7, Rahu – Pausa 8, Rahu – Pausa 9, Rahu – Pausa 10, Rahu – Pausa 11, Rahu – Pausa 12, Rahu – Pausa 13, Rahu – Pausa 14, Rahu – Pausa 15, Rahu – Pausa 16, Rahu – Pausa 17, Rahu – Pausa 18, Rahu kalirnay Pausa 19, Rahu – 206 20, Rahu – Pausa 21, Rahu – Pausa 22, Rahu – Pausa 23, Rahu – Pausa 24, Rahu – Pausa 25, Rahu – Pausa 26, Rahu – Pausa 27, Rahu – Pausa 28, Rahu – Pausa 29, Rahu – Magha 1, Rahu – Magha 2, Rahu –


His site is noteworthy for providing translations of texts that are not available in English anywhere in print, most notably the Kephalaia Gnostica,. During my studies I have constantly come across reference to the Origenists, usually in a hushed down manner – as if the scholars really are. Evagrius’s Kephalaia gnostika: a new translation of the unreformed text from the six centuries des “Kephalaia gnostica” (Po ; Paris: firmin-Didot, ).

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The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging where packaging is applicable.

Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted gnodtica or plastic bag. See details for additional description. Skip to main content.

See all 4 brand new listings. Be the first to write a review. About this product Synopsis Evagrius exerted a striking impact on the development of spirituality, of Origenism, and of the spiritual interpretation of the Bible in Greek, Syriac, and Latin Christianity.

This English translation of the most complete Syriac version of Kephalaia Gnostika makes Evagrius Ponticus’s thoughts concerning reality, God, protology, eschatology, anthropology, and allegorical exegesis of Scripture widely available to scholars and students. Ramelli provides an integrated analysis of Evagrius’s ascetic and philosophical writings.

Evagrius Ponticus: Text and Translation

The volume includes an extensive introduction on the importance of Evagrius and the context of his thought, the text and Kephaaia translation, commentary, and a bibliography. Show More Show Less.

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