Lorsqu’un pays se développe, les inégalités s’accroissent dans un premier temps puis elles diminuent. Cette relation, nommé courbe de Kuznets en U renversé. Nous montrons que le capital humain des pays suit une courbe en U inversée, sorte de courbe de Kuznets du capital humain. De plus, la courbe de Kuznets de . Formation et déformation de la courbe de Kuznets environnementale pour les émissions de CO2 (in French). Home; >; Research; >; Publications; >; Formation .

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Other versions of this item: The World Bank Research Observer. Conversely, reducing carbon dioxide emissions does not have a dramatic impact df a local level, so the impetus to clean them up is only for the altruistic reason of improving the global environment.

Manufacturing and export grew quickly and powerfully.

Formation et déformation de la Courbe de Kuznets Environnementale pour les émissions de CO2

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He finds that “little or no attention has been paid to the statistical properties of the data used such as serial dependence or stochastic trends in time series and few tests of model adequacy have been carried out or presented.

Stiglitz highlights that the high rates of growth provided the resources to promote equality, which acted as a positive-feedback loop to support the high rates of growth. This page was last edited on 23 Decemberat Since the environmental Kuznets curve EKC has become a standard feature in the technical literature of environmental policy[6] though its application there has been strongly contested. Thus, even in a country like the US with a high level of income, carbon emissions are not decreasing in accordance with the EKC.

Kuznets curve

National Bureau of Economic Research. Yet simultaneously, life expectancy was found to kuzneta and population levels living in absolute poverty decreased. Palma goes on to note that, among middle-income countries, only those in Latin America and Southern Africa live in an inequality league of their own.


Retrieved 16 June More about this item Keywords air pollution ; environmental Kuznets curve ; carbon dioxide emissions ; energy consumption ; Statistics Access and download statistics Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. So although their evidence seems to support the Kuznets theory in relation to trade liberalization, Dobson and Ramlogan assert that policies for redistribution must be simultaneously implemented in order to mitigate the initial increase in inequality.

Dobson and Ramlogan determine trade openness by the ratio of exports and imports the total trade and the average tariff rate; inequality is determined by gross primary school enrolment rates, the share of agriculture in total output, the rate of inflation, and cumulative privatization.

General contact details of provider: However, Gene Grossman and Alan B. Download full text from publisher File URL: Corrections All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. When requesting a correction, please mention this item’s handle: Muznets from the original on 15 June Retrieved 17 December Stern warns “it is very easy to do bad econometrics “, and says “the history of the EKC exemplifies what can go wrong”.

Retrieved 2 February Instead, we get a more realistic view of the effect of economic growth and technological changes on environmental quality. If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here.

This becomes a tragedy of the commons where it is most efficient for everyone to pollute and for no one to clean up, and everyone is worse as a result Hardin, kuznfts Other critics points out that researchers also disagree about the shape of the curve when longer-term time scales are evaluated.

Critics of the Kuznets curve theory argue that its U-shape comes not from progression in the development of individual countries, but rather from historical differences between countries.

This shift would not benefit low-skill workers as much. Palma then shows that there are two distributional trends taking place in inequality within a country:.

Education inequalities and the Kuznets curves: a global perspective since 1870

We show that human capital within countries exhibits an iuznets U-shaped curve with respect to average schooling, namely a “Kuznets curve of education”. Webarchive template wayback links CS1 maint: Because of this, Dobson and Ramlogan suggest that perhaps trade openness can be related to inequality through a Kuznets curve framework.


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Thomas Jobert Fatih Karanfil. For instance, many of the middle income countries used in Kuznets’ data set were in Latin America, a region with historically high levels of inequality.

Kuznets curve diagrams show an inverted U curve, although variables along the axes are often mixed and matched, with inequality or the Gini coefficient on the Y axis and economic development, time or per-capita incomes on the X axis. The Property and Environment Research Center. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.


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At least one critic argues that the US is still struggling to attain the income level necessary to prioritize certain environmental pollutants such as carbon emissions, which have yet to follow the EKC. Levinson concludes that the environmental Kuznets curve is insufficient to support a pollution policy regardless whether it is laissez-faire or interventionistalthough the literature has been used this way by the press. There have been mixed findings with this idea — some developing countries have experienced greater inequality, less inequality, or no difference at all, due to trade liberalization.

Retrieved 15 October Help us Corrections Found an error or omission? The hypothesis was first advanced by economist Simon Kuznets in the s and ’60s.