A escala de Waterlow na úlcera por pressão em pessoas com lesão medular: uma tecnologia assistencial de enfermagem. Waterlow’s Scale on pressure ulcers. PDF | OBJETIVO: Comparar las escalas de riesgo para úlcera por presión de Norton, Braden y Waterlow entre pacientes en estado crítico. MÉTODOS: Estudio . To evaluate the association between the scores of the Waterlow, .. da concordância na aplicação da Escala de Braden interobservadores.

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Incidence of pressure ulcers in intensive care unitpatients at risk according to the Waterlow scale and factorsinfluencing the development of pressure ulcers. The fact that our study was carried out at a specializedservice of emergency care on traumatology andneurology, which is normally associated to trafficaccidents involving young male individuals, has perhapsdetermined such difference.

For the Waterlow scale, the classification of the scores was done as follows: Inaddition, the results reinforced the existing directcorrelation between Braden and Norton scales, highlighted by other publications.

This scale assesses seven main topics: Diabetes, another indicator associated with the Waterlow scale, is prevalent in 6.

Waterlow score

Careful and periodic evaluation of the patient at risk for PU development is essential in nursing practice. Table 2 – Results of diagnostic tests applied to the cutoff scores of the Braden scale, according to the escalw. The scales presented different performance in this sample, with it being found that the Waterlow scale was able to demonstrate better predictive value.

All ethical recommendations were followed during the research stages. The results demonstrate a high incidence of pressure ulcers, in agreement with national publications, which also show a high incidence, especially in critically ill patients. eecala

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The maximum score is 23 points; and the smaller thescore is, higher will be the PU risk. The development of pressure ulcers is often rapid and causes complications for the hospitalized individual, as well as prolonging the treatment and rehabilitation, this diminishes the quality of life, causes pain and increases mortality 7.


Prior studies have revealed the relationships between smoking and an increased risk for the development of PU. Risk esfala for pressure ulcer in critical patients. Pressure ulcer guideline development and disseminationin Europe.

The setting involved a general ICU with 19 hospitals beds having patients who suffer from injuries, such as cardiovascular illness, respiratory disease, cancer, renal dysfunction and sepsis.

Conclusion The study found that the incidence of pressure ulcers in the study population was high. On the other hand, the criteria for excluding subjects from the study were asfollow: Cost Eff Resour Alloc. Pressure ulcers PUs are injuries that originate watfrlow the epithelial tissue and may reach lower layers, such as vessels, muscles and bones [ 45 ].

Each patient was evaluated, simultaneously, by three nurses, each of whom was responsible for the application of only one of the scales. There are several criticisms concerned to the Norton, Braden, Waterlow and Gosnell risk scales, because some of them underestimate and other overestimate the assessment of at-risk patients. Regarding the patients participating in the study, Support Center Support Center.

Pressure Ulcer Risk Evaluation in Critical Patients: Clinical and Social Characteristics

The evaluation of the accuracy of the scales was performed through the calculations of the diagnostic test properties, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, the likelihood escalq for a positive test and likelihood ratio for a negative test.


Patients in study weredivided into three groups, according to their evaluations: The risk of developing a PU can be evaluated from measurement scales of pressure ulcer risk factors [ 13 ]. Please review our privacy policy. The presence of a companion was other important evidence, so that all of the 19 patients that not developed pressure ulcers were accompanied.

Currently, three scales are highlighted for this purpose, the Waterlow, Braden, and Norton scales [ 14 ]. Wtaerlow Waterlow scale is divided into 11 risk factors that allow for assessment of waterlod risk of PU. During the four months of research, there were 83inpatients.

The incidence of pressure ulcers after the implementation of a prevention protocol.

Pressure Ulcer Risk Evaluation in Critical Patients: Clinical and Social Characteristics

A decrease in the occurrence of these lesions optimizes nursing care delivery and improves the quality of life of the hospitalized patient. Ulcers are classified into six categories: A similar facthas happened with the Waterlow scale, but thisproceeded during all the research time. The presence of a companion was considered important, because the 19 patients who did not develop pressure ulcers had companions.

Open in a separate window. Therefore, recognition of risk factors for critically ill patients can help reduce the risk of PUs [ 15 ]. On the other hand, another study [ 14 ] demonstrated that the Waterlow scale has high sensitivity Seeking to standardize the evaluations, the scores obtained from the application of the scales in the first three evaluations were used, i.

CarvalhoZuila Maria de Figueiredo. Open in a separate window.